What is in diesel exhaust?
Burchill, M. J., Gramotnev, D. K., Gramotnev, G., et al. (2011). Monitoring and analysis of combustion aerosol emissions from fast moving diesel trains. The Science of the Total Environment, 409(5), 985–93.
Health Effects of Diesel Exhaust. (n.d.).
Brandt, S. J., Perez, L., Künzli, N., et al. (2012). Costs of childhood asthma due to traffic-related pollution in two California communities. The European Respiratory Journal, 40(2), 363–70.
*Benbrahim-Tallaa, L., Baan, R. A., Grosse, Y., et al. (2012). Carcinogenicity of diesel-engine and gasoline-engine exhausts and some nitroarenes. The Lancet Oncology, 13(7), 663–664.
KOTIN, P., FALK, H. L., & THOMAS, M. (1955). Aromatic hydrocarbons. III. Presence in the particulate phase of diesel-engine exhausts and the carcinogenicity of exhaust extracts. A.M.A. Archives of Industrial Health, 11(2), 113–20.
Cardiopulmonary and Immune Response
McDonald, J. D., Campen, M. J., Harrod, K. S., et al. (2011). Engine-operating load influences diesel exhaust composition and cardiopulmonary and immune responses. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119(8), 1136–41.
Chen, J.-C., & Schwartz, J. (2009). Neurobehavioral effects of ambient air pollution on cognitive performance in US adults. Neurotoxicology, 30(2), 231–9
Hart, J. E., Eisen, E. A., & Laden, F. (2012). Occupational diesel exhaust exposure as a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine, 18(2), 151–4.
Diabetes and Obesity
Liu, C., Ying, Z., Harkema, J., et al. (2013). Epidemiological and experimental links between air pollution and type 2 diabetes. Toxicologic Pathology, 41(2), 361–73.
Sun, Q., Yue, P., Deiuliis, J. A., et al. (2009). Ambient air pollution exaggerates adipose inflammation and insulin resistancein a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Circulation, 119(4), 538–46.
Sun, Z., Mukherjee, B., Brook, R. D., et al. (2013). Air-Pollution and Cardiometabolic Diseases (AIRCMD): a prospective study investigating the impact of air pollution exposure and propensity for type II diabetes. The Science of the Total Environment, 448, 72–8.
*Hart, J. E., Garshick, E., Smith, T. J., et al. (2013). Ischaemic heart disease mortality and years of work in trucking industry workers. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 70(8), 523–528.
Januário, D. A. N. F., Perin, P. M., Maluf, M., et al. (2010). Biological effects and dose-response assessment of diesel exhaust particles on in vitro early embryo development in mice. Toxicological Sciences : An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology, 117(1), 200–8.
Bhatia, R., Lopipero, P., & Smith, A. H. (1998). Diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 9(1), 84–91.
IARC: diesel engine exhaust carcinogenic. (2012). Central European Journal of Public Health.
Laumbach, R. J., & Kipen, H. M. (2011). Does diesel exhaust cause lung cancer (yet)? American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 183(7), 843–4.
*Olsson, A. C., Gustavsson, P., Kromhout, H., et al. (2011). Exposure to diesel motor exhaust and lung cancer risk in a pooled analysis from case-control studies in Europe and Canada. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 183(7), 941–8.
Pedeli, X., Hoek, G., & Katsouyanni, K. (2011). Risk assessment of diesel exhaust and lung cancer: combining human and animal studies after adjustment for biases in epidemiological studies. Environmental Health : A Global Access Science Source, 10, 30.
Pintos, J., Parent, M.-E., Richardson, L., et al. (2012). Occupational exposure to diesel engine emissions and risk of lung cancer: evidence from two case-control studies in Montreal, Canada. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 69(11), 787–92.
Hu, S., Herner, J. D., Robertson, W., Kobayashi, R., et al. (2013). Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs from heavy-duty diesel vehicles with DPF and SCR. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995), 63(8), 984–96.
McDonald, J. D., Doyle-Eisele, M., Gigliotti, A., et al. (2012). Part 1. Biologic responses in rats and mice to subchronic inhalation of diesel exhaust from U.S. 2007-compliant engines: report on 1-, 3-, and 12-month exposures in the ACES bioassay. Research Report (Health Effects Institute), (166), 9–120.
OEHHA. (n.d.). Proposition 65 | OEHHA.
State of California Air Resources Board, S. of C. O. of E. H. H. A. (1998). INITIAL STATEMENT OF REASONS FOR RULEMAKING STAFF REPORT PROPOSED IDENTIFICATION OF DIESEL EXHAUST AS A TOXIC AIR CONTAMINANT.
Who is most affected?
Occupational Diesel Exposure
Brüske-Hohlfeld, I., Möhner, M., Ahrens, W., et al. (1999). Lung cancer risk in male workers occupationally exposed to diesel motor emissions in Germany. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 36(4), 405–14.
Lipsett, M., & Campleman, S. (1999). Occupational exposure to diesel exhaust and lung cancer: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 89(7), 1009–17.
Vermeulen, R., Silverman, D. T., Garshick, E., et al. (2014). Exposure-response estimates for diesel engine exhaust and lung cancer mortality based on data from three occupational cohorts. Environmental Health Perspectives, 122(2), 172–7.
Attfield, M. D., Schleiff, P. L., Lubin, J. H., et al. T. (2012). The Diesel Exhaust in Miners study: a cohort mortality study with emphasis on lung cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 104(11), 869–83.
Neumeyer-Gromen, A., Razum, O., Kersten, N., et al. (2009). Diesel motor emissions and lung cancer mortality–results of the second follow-up of a cohort study in potash miners. International Journal of Cancer, 124(8), 1900–6.
Silverman, D. T., Lubin, J. H., Blair, A. E., et al. (2014). RE: The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS): a nested case-control study of lung cancer and diesel exhaust. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 106(8).
Silverman, D. T., Samanic, C. M., Lubin, J. H., et al. (2012). The Diesel Exhaust in Miners study: a nested case-control study of lung cancer and diesel exhaust. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 104(11), 855–68.
Basu, R., Harris, M., Sie, L., et al. (2014). Effects of fine particulate matter and its constituents on low birth weight among full-term infants in California. Environmental Research, 128, 42–51.
Port Workers and Nearby Residents
Epa, U., & of Inspector General, O. (2009). At a Glance: EPA Needs to Improve Its Efforts to Reduce Air Emissions at U.S. Ports.
EPA’s Office of Inspector General. (n.d.).
Garshick, E., Laden, F., Hart, J. E., et al. (2004). Lung cancer in railroad workers exposed to diesel exhaust. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112(15), 1539–43.
Garshick, E., Laden, F., Hart, J. E., et al. (2006). Smoking imputation and lung cancer in railroad workers exposed to diesel exhaust. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 49(9), 709–18.
Garshick, E., Schenker, M. B., Muñoz, A., et al. (1987). A case-control study of lung cancer and diesel exhaust exposure in railroad workers. The American Review of Respiratory Disease, 135(6), 1242–8.
Hart, J. E., Laden, F., Schenker, M. B., et al. (2006). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality in diesel-exposed railroad workers. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(7), 1013–7.
*Laden, F., Hart, J. E., Eschenroeder, A., et al. (2006). Historical estimation of diesel exhaust exposure in a cohort study of U.S. railroad workers and lung cancer. Cancer Causes and Control, 17(7), 911–919.
Trucking Industry Workers
*Garshick, E., Laden, F., Hart, J. E., et al. (2012). Lung cancer and elemental carbon exposure in trucking industry workers. Environmental Health Perspectives, 120(9), 1301–6.
Residents Near Highways
Hinds, Williams C., Sioutas, Constantinos, Z., & Yifang. (2001). 2001 Annual Report | Relationship Between Ultrafine Particle Size Distribution and Distance From Highways| Research Project Database | NCER | ORD | US EPA.
Maheswaran, R., & Elliott, P. (2003). Stroke mortality associated with living near main roads in England and wales: a geographical study. Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation, 34(12), 2776–80.
*Zhu, Y., Hinds, W. C., Kim, S., et al. (2002). Study of ultrafine particles near a major highway with heavy-duty diesel traffic. Atmospheric Environment, 36(27), 4323–4335
Residents Near Railroads
*Hricko, A., Rowland, G., Eckel, S., et al. (2014). Global trade, local impacts: Lessons from California on health impacts and environmental justice concerns for residents living near freight rail yards. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11(2), 1914–1941.
Residents Near Warehouses
*American Heart Association. (2010). Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association.
Bishop, G. A., Schuchmann, B. G., & Stedman, D. H. (2013). Heavy-duty truck emissions in the South Coast Air Basin of California. Environmental Science & Technology, 47(16), 9523–9.
Clean Air Action Plan. (n.d.).
Draft Revised Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (External Draft, July 1999). (n.d.).
EXECUTIVE ORDER B-32-15. (n.d.).
The Report on Diesel Exhaust. (n.d.).